In the Heian Period, “Kokin wakashu” which is the first original Japanese imperial writings collection, “Shin-Kokin wakashu” was edited in the Kamakura period, the culture of Tanka reached the peak. The first lengthy work of fiction in Japanese, Utsubo monogatari (“The Tale of the Hollow Tree”), was apparently written between 970 and 983, although the last chapter may have been written later. Byodoin Temple, a world heritage site in Kyoto, was built during the Heian period. Makura no sōshi (c. 1000; The Pillow Book of Sei Shōnagon) is another masterpiece of the Heian period that should be mentioned with Genji monogatari. The brevity and often the ambiguity of the tanka gave rise to a need for such explanations, and, when these explanations became extended or (as in the case of Ise monogatari) were interpreted as biographical information about one poet (Ariwara Narihira), they approached the realm of fiction. Ise monogatari (c. 980; Tales of Ise) consists of 143 episodes, each containing one or more poems and an explanation in prose of the circumstances of composition. Although written Chinese remained the official language of the Heian period imperial court, the introduction and wide use of kana saw a boom in Japanese literature. The early Heian Poets represented on WakaPoetry.net are: There are 37 botanical gardens throughout Japan devoted to displaying the plants and poetry of the Man’yōshū, of which 27 are open to the public. This was due to the preference of the court for Chinese-style poetry known as kanshi. New culture ideas at 8 th century 5. The Biography of Ki no Tsurayuki The contrast between this crude work and the sublime Genji monogatari is overwhelming. Japanese poetry forms. Events of the journey are interspersed with the poems composed on various occasions. The Heian period is also considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art, especially poetry and literature. The Heian period is the last division of classical Japanese history that runs from 794 to 1185. The Biography of Ki no Tsurayuki Other diaries of the period include the anecdotal Murasaki Shikibu nikki (“The Diary of Murasaki Shikibu”; Eng. The complexity of Chinese writing and the fact that Chinese characters were often unsuited for certain Japanese sounds led writers and priests to work out two sets … Despite the establishment of several new literary genre such as the novel and narrative monogatari and essays, literacy was only common among the court and Buddhist clergy. Britannica now has a site just for parents! T he immense cultural achievements of women writers in ancient Japan — Murasaki Shikibu (c. 973 or 978-c. 1014 or 1031 CE), Sei Shonagon (c. 966-c. 1017 or 1025 CE), and Izumi Shikibu (c. 976-c. 1040 CE) — facilitated the first flowering of classical Japanese literature. It is known that he was active in the Heian court between 898-920. Poetry was very popular in Heian-kyo at the time. Classical literature: Heian period (794–1185) Poetry; Prose; Medieval literature: Kamakura, Muromachi, and Azuchi-Momoyama periods (1192–1600) Kamakura period (1192–1333) The Muromachi (1338–1573) and Azuchi-Momoyama (1574–1600) periods; Literature during the Tokugawa period (1603–1867) Early Tokugawa period (1603–c. Aristocracy, poetry and literature was on its peak. Emperor Go-Toba ordered the creation of a new anthology and joined in editing it. Love poetry occupies a prominent place in the Kokinshū, but the joys of love are seldom celebrated; instead, the poets write in the melancholy vein prescribed in the preface, describing the uncertainties before a meeting with the beloved, the pain of parting, or the sad realization that an affair has ended. Eventually, the situation resulted in Emperor Kammu (r. 781-806 CE) moving the capital from Nara to (briefly) Nagaokakyo and then to Heiankyo in 794 CE to start afres… In Heian society, poetry was integral to romance. In July 2016, I visited ten of these for research purposes, in various parts of Japan’s main island, Honshu, and one of its others, Shikoku. In spite of internal turmoil for the Heian people, there was a period of artistic and cultural growth with a specific interest in poetry and literature, a continuation of the Nara Period. Poetry was very popular in Heian-kyo at the time. In Japan, poetry began hundreds of years ago. In the Heian Period (794-1185), Chinese was the language of the law and the courts. The Heian Period of art is divided into an early and a late phase, turning on the cessation of official relations with China in 838. There were also a number of customs and norms that guided court life in the Heian period—all of which help or trap Genji in turn, depending on how he feels about a given situation. The next two volumes approach a true diary, with some entries apparently made on the days indicated. No such didactic intent is noticeable in Taketori monogatari (10th century; Tale of the Bamboo Cutter), a fairy tale about a princess who comes from the Moon to dwell on Earth in the house of a humble bamboo cutter; the various tests she imposes on her suitors, fantastic though they are, are described with humour and realism. Classical literature: Heian period (794–1185) Poetry; Prose; Medieval literature: Kamakura, Muromachi, and Azuchi-Momoyama periods (1192–1600) Kamakura period (1192–1333) The Muromachi (1338–1573) and Azuchi-Momoyama (1574–1600) periods; Literature during the Tokugawa period (1603–1867) Early Tokugawa period (1603–c. After the Heian period, during the Kamakura period and later, renga, a form of collaborative linked poetry, began to develop. Konjaku monogatari (early 12th century; “Tales of Now and Then”; partially translated into English as Ages Ago and as Tales of Times Now Past), a massive collection of religious stories and folktales drawn not only from the Japanese countryside but also from Indian and Chinese sources, described elements of society that had never been treated in the court novels. For the poets of the Kokinshū and the later court anthologies, originality was less desirable than perfection of language and tone. HEIAN-KYO ART The imperial court as a political power… During this time, a new writing technique was implemented called hiragana. The Heian period is also considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art, especially poetry and literature. Genji monogatari was called a work of mono no aware (“a sensitivity to things”) by the great 18th-century literary scholar Motoori Norinaga; the hero, Prince Genji, is not remarkable for his martial prowess or his talents as a statesman but as an incomparable lover, sensitive to each of the many women he wins. 1770) Although these restrictions saved Japanese poetry from lapses into bad taste or vulgarity, they froze it for centuries in prescribed modes of expression. Ki Tsurayuki is celebrated also for his Tosa nikki (936; The Tosa Diary), the account of his homeward journey to Kyōto from the province of Tosa, where he had served as governor. The aristocrats of Heian-kyo lived in great luxury. Murasaki Shikibu’s aware can be traced through later literature—sensitivity always marked the writings of any author in the aristocratic tradition—but Sei Shōnagon’s wit belonged to the Heian court alone. The Heian Period was divided into 2 parts, with the first being dominated by Chinese borrowings and the second seeing the development of native arts and customs Early Heian Period: 794-957 Late/Fujiwara Period: 858-1185 It was also considered as the last division in classical Japanese history. In one passage, in which she gloats over the death of a rival’s child, her obsession with her own griefs shows to worst advantage. Ariwara no Narihira; Ariwara no Yukihira; Egyō; Fun’ya no Yasuhide; Henjō; Ise; Ki no Tomonori; Ki no Tsurayuki; Kiyowara no Fukayabu; Kiyowara no Motosuke; Mibu no Tadamine; Minamoto no Shitagō; Ōe no Chisato; Ono no Komachi; Ōshikōchi no Mitsune; Sone no Yoshitada; Taira no Kanemori; Taira no Sadafun; Mid-Heian Poets. Heian artists created new Japanese forms of sculpture and painting. Moreover, the invention of the Japanese native writing systems served as a stimulus to the creation of a prose literature, as well as the births of prominent female writers (Handout 8). The short poems called tanka were very popular in Heian times. Murasaki Shikibu: Her Diary and Poetic Memoirs), at once an absorbing literary work and a source of information on the court life the author (Murasaki Shikibu) described more romantically in her masterpiece Genji monogatari (c. 1010; The Tale of Genji) and in Izumi Shikibu nikki (The Diary of Izumi Shikibu), which is less a diary than a short story liberally ornamented with poetry. The Tale of Genji follows the titular character from the year before his birth to what most scholars believe is some point in his forties, a period thought to be set in the early to mid tenth century. As a prolific poet, who composed many poems to accompany pictures on folding screens, he contributed to the introduction of fictionality to Japanese poetry. Three imperially sponsored anthologies of Chinese poetry appeared between 814 and 827, and it seemed for a time that writing in Japanese would be relegated to an extremely minor position. The Man'yōshū 万葉集, literally "Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves", (see Name below) is the oldest existing collection of Japanese poetry, compiled sometime after 759 AD during the Nara period. The preface by Tsurayuki, the oldest work of sustained prose in kana, enumerated the circumstances that move men to write poetry; he believed that melancholy, whether aroused by a change in the seasons or by a glimpse of white hairs reflected in a mirror, provided a more congenial mood for writing poetry than the harsher emotions treated in the earlier, pre-kana anthology Man’yōshū. In Kyoto, the court enjoyed a relatively long period of peace and political strength lasting nearly 400 years, until 1185. Japanese literature in the Heian period was most popular for its domination of women’s culture (Hooker, Richard). Today, the main forms of Japanese poetry include both experimental poetry and poetry that seeks to revive traditional ways. The story is related in terms of the successive women Genji loves; each of them evokes a different response from this marvelously complex man. There, during the Heian period, a lavish culture of refinement and poetic subtlety developed, and it would have a lasting influence on Japanese arts. The author was a woman. An inept poem or misquoted phrase was laughed at and scorned. Although the Imperial House of Japanhad power on the surface, the real power was in the han… The last third of the novel, describing the world after Genji’s death, is much darker in tone, and the principal figures, though still impressive, seem no more than fragmentations of the peerless Genji. Japanese poetry (waka) has its roots in a long history of poetry pre-dating the Heian period. 20.1 Introduction 1. The success of Genji monogatari was immediate. Kagerō nikki (The Gossamer Years) describes the life between 954 and 974 of the second wife of Fujiwara Kaneie, a prominent court official. In the Heian period especially, waka were a most important form of communication between lovers, and a person's skill in poetry was a major criterion in determining his or her standing in society, even influencing political positions. The famous Japanese poem known as the Iroha (いろは), of uncertain authorship, was also written during the Heian period. 872-945) is famous as a poet, a critic and a diarist. Start of Heian period 7. Kanshi: Kanshi the Japanese word for Chinese poetry, and it includes Japanese poetry written in Chinese. Introduction. Kanshi was a popular genre of poetry in the Heian period (794–1185), and a favorite among Japanese aristocrats. Court women wrote classic works of Japanese literature. There were various changes, such as the increase of women writers and introduction of new ideas, like mono no aware. The first volume, related long after the events, is in the manner of an autobiographical novel; even the author confesses that her remembrances are probably tinged with fiction. In spite of internal turmoil for the Heian people, there was a period of artistic and cultural growth with a specific interest in poetry and literature, a continuation of the Nara Period. During the Heian period, a lavish culture of refinement and poetic subtlety developed, and it would have a lasting influence on Japanese arts. Japanese literature in the Heian period was most popular for its domination of women’s culture (Hooker, Richard). The Heian court society passed its prime by the middle of the 11th century, but it did not collapse for another 100 years. The most important writers in the Heian period were women who wrote between 950 and 1050. During the Heian period, waka (Japanese poetry) was very prominent in society especially among women of the court. During the Nara Period (710-794 CE) the Japanese imperial court was beset by internal conflicts motivated by the aristocracy battling each other for favours and positions and an excessive influence on policy from Buddhist sects whose temples were dotted around the capital. The Heian period produced a flowering of poetry including works of Ariwara no Narihira, Ono no Komachi, Izumi Shikibu, Murasaki Shikibu, Saigyō and Fujiwara no Teika. The Heian period is considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art and especially in poetry and literature. the majority of the extant vernacular works from the Heian period. Its most pattern was composed of five to seven syllables divided into four or eight lines. Need to response the same type of poem if received one poem from other people 5. Heian Cultural Life While most historians regard the political and economic developments of the Heian Period, in particular, the gradual abandonment of the ritsuryō system, quite critically, most evaluations of the cultural sphere are predominantly positive: the experience is seen as one in which the Japanese created a genuinely native culture for the first time. Two new types of lettering were invented; Katakana, a simplified script based on Chinese, also Hiragana, a more cursive style that was distinctly Japanese. However, its popularity revived and grew in the 9th century, when Japan ceased to send official envoys to China during its Tang dynasty. In between reads, try this novel idea: a quiz on all things literature. One of the most famous poets from the Heian period was none other than Ki no Tsurayuki. Japanese poetry of bygone days and the influence of China. Poor calligraphy could also ruin a reputation. Only a skilled critic can distinguish a typical tanka of the 10th century from one of the 18th century. Renga: In the twelfth century, the poetic style renga came about. As one of the compilers of the Kokinshû, and the writer of its Japanese (kana) preface, he helped to shape the style and imagery of all waka that followed him. The writer (known only as “the mother of Michitsuna”) describes, with many touches of self-pity, her unhappy life with her husband. One of the three things the Heian-period lady-in-waiting Sei Shōnagon includes in her list of ‘Things That are Near Though Distant’ is ‘Relations between a man and a woman.’ 1 William McCullough, a scholar of Heian-period Japan, argues an understanding of relations between men and women is vital for the historian to appreciate any given society. Highly formal "poetry parties" were staged, testing one's wit and cleverness. It was eventually replaced by the more preferred form of Tanka. These “diaries” are closely related in content and form to the uta monogatari (“poem tales”) that emerged as a literary genre later in the 10th century. It lasted until 1185, which is the beginning of the Kamakura period. Akazome Emon; Fujiwara no Akisue The work is affecting especially because of the repeated, though muted, references to the death of Tsurayuki’s daughter in Tosa. The Heian period began in 794 when the capital of Japan was moved to Heian-kyō. Showed scenes inside buildings from above VIII. Used kana first 6. As you may recall, the bugaku performances of Heian times blended dance and drama. Culture close to Asian mainland 2. Role of Poetry in Narrative Prose of the Heian Period Essay 1293 Words | 6 Pages. The foundation of the city of Heian-kyō (later known as Kyōto) as the capital of Japan marked the beginning of a period of great literary brilliance. The author of the touching Sarashina nikki (mid-11th century; “Sarashina Diary”; Eng. The anthology is one of the most revered of Japan's poetic compilations. The critics, far from praising novelty of effects, condemned deviation from the standard poetic diction—which was established by the Kokinshū and consisted of some 2,000 words—and insisted on absolute adherence to the poetic codes first formulated in the 10th century. Music, poetry, art, fashion, and calligraphy were all part of a Heian Period woman's education. The Heian period (meaning “peace”) is named after the capital of Heian-kyō, or modern-day Kyoto, and was a time characterized by the aristocracy privileging political intrigue over warfare as a way to accrue and conserve power. 20 Outline, Heian-kyo: The Heart of Japan’s Golden Age I. Perhaps the easiest to use for SCA purposes, 31 syllable divided into 5 units called Ku in a China (Handout 8). Renga is a collaborative form of poetry. It is known that he was active in the Heian court between 898-920. The Heian period began in 794 when the capital of Japan was moved to Heian-kyō. One of the most famous poets from the Heian period was none other than Ki no Tsurayuki. The enduring appeal of Japanese literature, Classical literature: Heian period (794–1185), Medieval literature: Kamakura, Muromachi, and Azuchi-Momoyama periods (1192–1600), The Muromachi (1338–1573) and Azuchi-Momoyama (1574–1600) periods, Literature during the Tokugawa period (1603–1867). Developed own civilization 4. It has developed through time by some of the greatest poets known in the history of Japan. The first novel in the world was written (The tale of Genji). Lee Jay Walker. This was reflected in its heavy use in popular or noted narrative prose of that time period. Compra Waka (Poetry): Japanese Poetry, Japanese Literature, Kanshi (Poetry), Heian Period, Masaoka Shiki. Tanka, or "short poem." These earlier forms of poetry were based directly upon the Chinese styles from which they originated and include various types of poetry. Lasted until 1185 8. Read More about “Man’yō Botanical Gardens”…, Traditional Japanese Weights and Measures, Akatsuka Botanical Garden: Garden of Man’yō and Medicinal Plants, Ichikawa Municipal Man’yō Botanical Garden, Futagami Mountain Park: Man’yō Botanical Garden, Kii Fudoki no Oka: Man’yō Botanical Garden, Asuka Historical Park: Man’yō Botanical Garden Road, Kasuga Grand Shrine Sacred Garden: Man’yō Botanical Garden, Rokujō sai’in baishi naishinnō ke uta’awase. The author was a woman. The Kokinshū set the precedent for later court anthologies, and a knowledge of its contents was indispensable to all poets as a guide and source of literary allusions. It lasted until 1185, which is the beginning of the Kamakura period. Aristocrats led flourishing of culture 10. trans. Heian influence is also seen in modern poetry. The most important writers in the Heian period were women who wrote between 950 and 1050. Yet her journal is extraordinarily moving precisely because the author dwells exclusively on universally recognizable emotions and omits the details of court life that must have absorbed the men. Since the middle of the 19th century, the major forms of Japanese poetry have been tanka (the modern name for waka), haiku and shi or western-style poetry. It has developed through time by some of the greatest poets known in the history of Japan. This uneven, ill-digested work is of interest chiefly as an amalgam of elements in the poem tales and fairy tales; it contains 986 tanka, and its episodes range from early realism to pure fantasy. Emperor Kanmu allowed local landowners to have full time armed fighters. Two new types of lettering were invented; Katakana, a simplified script based on Chinese, also Hiragana, a more cursive style that was distinctly Japanese. Ono no Komachi and Izumi Shikibo were writers during the Heian period of Japan, 794–1185. Kanshi refers to Chinese poetry in general, as well as poetry written in Chinese by Japanese poets. The popularity of waka among officials decreased during the Nara period and the early parts of the Heian period. Although the Imperial House of Japan had power on the surface, the real power was in the hands of the Fujiwara clan , a powerful … The kanshi was one of the most popular forms of poetry at the time. During the Heian period, Japanese script was developed. Tanka poetry is still a vibrant part of Japanese literature. They helped the emperor suppress the rebellions. Priests probably used these stories, written in Chinese, as a source of sermons with the intent of persuading ordinary Japanese, incapable of reading difficult works of theology, that they must lead virtuous lives if they were not to suffer in hell for present misdeeds. In this period Kyoto was the center of Japanese culture. During the Heian Period, Japan entered its 'Golden Age' where Japanese art, poetry, and culture were at its height. The name heian is a word that means "peace" in Japanese. Renga is a collaborative form of poetry. An inept poem or misquoted phrase was laughed at and scorned. The Japanese poet Mibu no Tadamine reached his height during the late ninth and early tenth centuries. The Heian period (平安時代, Heian jidai) is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. This criticism is unsatisfying to a modern reader because it is so terse and unanalytical, but it nevertheless marks a beginning of Japanese poetic criticism, an art that developed impressively during the course of the Heian period. Early Heian Poets. The Heian period (meaning “peace”) is named after the capital of Heian-kyō, or modern-day Kyoto, and was a time characterized by the aristocracy privileging political intrigue over warfare as a way to accrue and conserve power. Poetry during the Heian period was greatly important in the lives of the aristocrats. The period is named after the capital city of Heian-kyō, or modern Kyoto. The Heian period ended in civil war and the rise of new military leaders. Dring the Heian Period, the Japanese were fascinated with Chinese culture. world outside her home, and how poetry was romantically effective at arousing strong passions between lovers. Tsurayuki wrote this diary in Japanese, though men at the time normally kept their diaries in Chinese; that may explain why he pretended that a woman in the governor’s entourage was its author. Classical literature: Heian period (794–1185) The foundation of the city of Heian-kyō (later known as Kyōto) as the capital of Japan marked the beginning of a period of great literary brilliance. Moreover, the invention of the Japanese native writing systems served as a stimulus to the creation of a prose literature, as well as the births of prominent female writers (Handout 8). In addition to both personal and public poetry collections, much of Heian-era poetry has come to us preserved in the passages of stories and the entries of diaries written by women authors. Waterways protect from being conquest 3. Kanshi, Japanese term for Chinese poetry and was the most popular form of poetry in early Heian Period. They prized beauty, elegance, and correct manners. Japanese Poetry: The Roles of Poetry in Narrative Prose of the Heian Period 1569 Words | 7 Pages. Japanese Poetry: The Roles of Poetry in Narrative Prose of the Heian Period 1569 Words | 7 Pages. The earliest writings of the period, however, were almost all in Chinese because of the continued desire to emulate the culture of the continent. Long after its political power had been usurped by military men, the court retained its prestige as the fountainhead of culture. A noble was expected to be well-versed in literature, poetry, painting, dancing, calligraphy, and more. The best tanka in the Kokinshū captivate the reader by their perceptivity and tonal beauty, but these flawlessly turned miniatures lack the variety of the Man’yōshū. During the Heian period (794-1185), named after this city, the country really was at peace, and the ... Lovers courted each other with poetry, often written in the form of waka or tanka, and affairs succeeded or failed according to the sensitivity of the poems and the beauty of the writer's handwriting (calligraphy). The new capital, Heian or Heian-kyō, was the city known today as Kyoto. Therefore, to understand poetry’s influence over aristocratic courtship, and the creative The invariable perfection of diction, unmarred by any indecorous cry from the heart, may sometimes make one doubt the poet’s sincerity. Highly formal "poetry parties" were staged, testing one's wit and cleverness. The Heian period is also considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art, especially poetry and literature. Poor calligraphy could also ruin a reputation. WRITING IN THE HEIAN PERIOD. The Heian period produced a flowering of poetry including works of Ariwara no Narihira, Ono no Komachi, Izumi Shikibu, Murasaki Shikibu, Saigyō and Fujiwara no Teika. These stories, though crudely written, provide glimpses of how the common people spoke and behaved in an age marked by warfare and new religious movements. Modern Tokyo Times. The Heian period is also considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art, especially poetry and literature. The collection of folk songs Ryōjin hishō, compiled in 1179 by the emperor Go-Shirakawa, suggests the vitality of this burgeoning popular culture even as the aristocratic society was being threatened with destruction. Japanese critics have often distinguished the aware of Genji monogatari and the okashi of Makura no sōshi. In the late Heian period, three of the last great waka poets appeared: Fujiwara no Shunzei, his son Fujiwara no Teika, and Emperor Go-Toba. The Heian Period was the longest, most stable period of Japanese history, lasting nearly 400 years and promoting the development of a uniquely Japanese culture. In Japan, poetry began hundreds of years ago. Emperor Kammu moved capital to Heian-kyo 6. trans. The Genji monogatari is the finest work not only of the Heian period but of all Japanese literature and merits being called the first important novel written anywhere in the world. Modern Japanese drama also shows Heian influences. In early Heian Period, a lot of Buddha statues of Myoo with some faces and arms, ... Poetry[/su_label] Following the collection of poems in Nara Period “Manyoshu”(『万葉集』), the original poetry style Waka(和歌) became popular among the Heian nobles. As I Crossed a Bridge of Dreams) describes how as a girl she longed to visit the capital so that she might read the entire work (which had been completed some 10 years earlier). The Japanese poet Mibu no Tadamine reached his height during the late ninth and early tenth centuries. One of the most influential groups of the Heian era was the aristocratic Fujiwara family. Hey, bookworm! Poetry were popular in daily life 2. poetess Ukon. Aware means sensitivity to the tragic implications of a moment or gesture, okashi the comic overtones of perhaps the same moment or gesture. In this period Kyoto was the center of Japanese culture. T he immense cultural achievements of women writers in ancient Japan — Murasaki Shikibu (c. 973 or 978-c. 1014 or 1031 CE), Sei Shonagon (c. 966-c. 1017 or 1025 CE), and Izumi Shikibu (c. 976-c. 1040 CE) — facilitated the first flowering of classical Japanese literature. Finally, as the author of the Tosa Nikki (Tosa Diary), written in the persona of a woman, he laid the groundwork for the triumph of women’s literature later in the Heian period. Most were written in kana (language used by women). During this time, a new writing technique was implemented called hiragana. Modern Tokyo Times. Ki no Tsurayuki 紀貫之 (ca. The lover’s departure at dawn evoked many wistful passages in Genji monogatari, but in Makura no sōshi Sei Shōnagon noted with unsparing exactness the lover’s fumbling, ineffectual leave-taking and his lady’s irritation. The famous Japanese poem known as the Iroha (いろは), of uncertain authorship, was also written during the Heian period. Heian period (794-1185): courtly refinement and poetic expression. China (Handout 8). Japanese poetry of bygone days and the influence of China. 1770) Renga: In the twelfth century, the poetic style renga came about. During the Heian period, a lavish culture of refinement and poetic subtlety developed, and it would have a lasting influence on Japanese arts. This is not true of the great Kokinshū poets of the 9th century—Ono Komachi, Lady Ise, Ariwara Narihira, and Tsurayuki himself—but even Buddhist priests, who presumably had renounced carnal love, wrote love poetry at the court competitions, and it is hard to detect any difference between such poems and those of actual lovers. The term Heian period refers to the years between 794 and 1185, when the Kamakura shogunate was established at the end of the Genpei War. The Imperial Court emulated Chinese fashion and customs while they pursued the arts. The two prefaces are clearly indebted to the theories of poetry described by the compilers of such Chinese anthologies as the Shijing (“Classic of Poetry”) and Wen xuan (“Selections of Refined Literature”), but the preferences they express would be shared by most tanka poets for the next 1,000 years. 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