In either case, the afikoman must be consumed during the twelfth part of the Seder, Tzafun. [40], Chametz does not include baking soda, baking powder or like products. The etymology is disputed, and hypotheses are divided whether to connect it to psh (to protect, save) or to a word meaning "limp, dance with limping motions". Traditionally the youngest child is prompted to ask questions about the Passover seder, beginning with the words, Mah Nishtana HaLeila HaZeh (Why is this night different from all other nights?). Comic: I got vaccinated. Passover is a holiday that has certain dietary restrictions associated with it. [citation needed] Cognate languages yield similar terms with distinct meanings, such as "make soft, soothe, placate" (Akkadian passahu), "harvest, commemoration, blow" (Egyptian), or "separate" (Arabic fsh). According to the Midrash, only the Pharaoh was spared to give testimony to the miracle that occurred. Some machine-made matzos are completed within 5 minutes of being kneaded.[39]. Brady, Brees share special moment after playoff game. https://www.learnreligions.com/all-about-passover-pesach-2076435 (accessed January 22, 2021). The eight-day festival of Passover is celebrated in the early spring, from the 15th through the 22nd of the Hebrew month of Nissan, April 8 - April 16, 2020. Four days before the Exodus, the Hebrews were commanded to set aside a lamb (Exodus 12:3), and inspect it daily for blemishes. If several people or family members assist in the search then only one person, usually the head of that family recites the blessing having in mind to include everyone present:[50], ברוך אתה י-הוה א-להינו מלך העולם אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו על בעור חמץ, (berūkh otah, Adoynoy E-lohaynū, melekh ha-‘ôlam, eser qedesh-nū be-mitsūtayu we-tsewinū ‘al be-ôr ḥamets). It is also stipulated that its observance should differ from the feast of Passover which is celebrated by the Jews, and he stated that Muslims should fast for two days instead of one, either on the 9th and 10th day or on the 10th and 11th day of Muharram.[75]. The Talmudic sages instructed that a search for chametz be made in every home, place of work, or any place where chametz may have been brought during the year. Josephus writes: On the second day of unleavened bread, that is to say the sixteenth, our people partake of the crops which they have reaped and which have not been touched till then, and esteeming it right first to do homage to God, to whom they owe the abundance of these gifts, they offer to him the first-fruits of the barley in the following way. In narrations recorded in the al-Hadith (sayings of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad) of Sahih al-Bukhari, it is recommended that Muslims fast on this day. Conservative Jews follow these rituals carefully, though more progressive or reform Jews may practice a more relaxed observance. The 15th day begins in the evening, after the 14th day, and the seder meal is eaten that evening. [50] When the first Seder is on a Saturday night, the search is conducted on the preceding Thursday night (thirteenth of Nisan) as chametz cannot be burned during Shabbat. There is a Rabbinic requirement that four cups of wine are to be drunk during the seder meal. [30], In Israel, Passover is the seven-day holiday of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, with the first and last days celebrated as legal holidays and as holy days involving holiday meals, special prayer services, and abstention from work; the intervening days are known as Chol HaMoed ("Weekdays [of] the Festival"). The rabbi then re-purchases the goods for less than they were sold at the end of the holiday.[49]. [31][32][33] Karaites use a different version of the Jewish calendar, differing from that used with modern Jewish calendar by one or two days. Some suggest that it represents followers assuming a humble, subservient attitude for Passover—in other words, to be slave-like in the face of God. According to Muslim tradition, the Jews of Madinah used to fast on the tenth of Muharram in observance of Passover. According to Halakha, the ownership of such chametz is also proscribed. Passover celebrates the Jews' salvation from slavery in Egypt through God. In many Orthodox Jewish communities, men traditionally gather in groups ("chaburas") to bake handmade matzo for use at the Seder, the dough being rolled by hand, resulting in a large and round matzo. As the Exodus motif grew, the original function and symbolism of these double origins was lost. On the calendars used by Karaites and Samaritans, Abib or Aviv 15 (as opposed to 'Nisan') corresponds to April 11 in 2009. Learn Religions, Aug. 26, 2020, learnreligions.com/all-about-passover-pesach-2076435. [25] Philo states that the banquet included hymns and prayers.[26]. For other uses, see, Jewish holiday which begins on 15th of the Hebrew month of Nisan, Interpretations for abstinence from leaven or yeast, Blessing for search of chametz and nullification of chametz, Separate kosher for Passover utensils and dishes, The four questions and participation of children, Chol HaMoed: The intermediate days of Passover. Observant Jews also avoid eating any food products containing wheat, barley, rye, spelt, or oats. [66] This holiday commemorates the day the Children of Israel reached the Red Sea and witnessed both the miraculous "Splitting of the Sea" (Passage of the Red Sea), the drowning of all the Egyptian chariots, horses and soldiers that pursued them. Pelaia, Ariela. This is a story known as the Exodus. On the morning of the 14th of Nisan, any leavened products that remain in the householder's possession, along with the 10 morsels of bread from the previous night's search, are burned (s'rayfat chametz). The counting also involves weeks; thus, the seventh day is commemorated, "Today is the seventh day, which is one week in the Omer." Unlike chametz, which can be eaten any day of the year except during Passover, kosher for Passover foods can be eaten year-round. James B. Prichard, ed., The Ancient Near East – An Anthology of Texts and Pictures, Volume 1, Princeton University Press, 1958, p. 278. Passover is a festival of freedom.. Likewise, they are encouraged to search for the afikoman, the piece of matzo which is the last thing eaten at the seder. Still others celebrate it after sunset, at which time it would be the 15th of Nisan, the time in which the Israelites ate the Passover meal (for example see Exodus 12:8). Rabbi Philip R. Alstat, an early leader of Conservative Judaism, known for his fiery rhetoric and powerful oratory skills, wrote and spoke in 1939 about the power of the Passover story during the rise of Nazi persecution and terror:[70]. Pesach is observed by avoiding leaven, and highlighted by the Seder meals that include four cups of wine, eating matzah and bitter herbs, and retelling the story of the Exodus. This usually takes place during the Passover Seder, which is a service held at home as part of the Passover celebration. Find out when Passover starts and ends in 2021, … The biblical regulations for the observance of the festival require that all leavening be disposed of before the beginning of the 15th of Nisan[13] An unblemished lamb or goat, known as the Korban Pesach or "Paschal Lamb", is to be set apart on 10th Nisan,[14] and slaughtered at dusk as 14th Nisan ends in preparation for the 15th of Nisan when it will be eaten after being roasted. [63], While kosher for Passover packaged goods are available in stores, some families opt to cook everything from scratch during Passover week. [17] Nothing of the sacrifice on which the sun rises by the morning of the 15th of Nisan may be eaten, but must be burned.[19]. It … Thus, 10 morsels of bread or cereal smaller than the size of an olive are traditionally hidden throughout the house in order to ensure that some chametz will be found. The Passover Seder commemorates the events of the Jewish experience in Egypt – from their enslavement to the miraculous events of the Exodus. Passover is marked by several carefully structured rituals enacted over the seven or eight days of the celebration. The Samaritan religion celebrates its own, similar Passover holiday, based on the Samaritan Pentateuch. New York, Sarna, Nahum M. (1986) "Exploring Exodus". ( not a sin sacrifice) The Hebrews killed and ate a representative of one of their gods in front of all Egypt and put the very life force of their false god on the door and death passed over them and punished the firstborn of Egypt instead. And ye shall bring an offering made by fire unto the LORD seven days; in the seventh day is a holy convocation; ye shall do no manner of servile work. It is customary to turn off the lights and conduct the search by candlelight, using a feather and a wooden spoon: candlelight effectively illuminates corners without casting shadows; the feather can dust crumbs out of their hiding places; and the wooden spoon which collects the crumbs can be burned the next day with the chametz. Some of these details can be corroborated, and to some extent amplified, in extrabiblical sources. A special cutting tool is run over the dough just before baking to prick any bubbles which might make the matza puff up;[55] this creates the familiar dotted holes in the matzo. The tenth plague is where the Jewish holiday of Passover derives its name because while the Angel of Death visited Egypt, it "passed over" Hebrew homes, which had been marked with lamb's blood on the doorposts. Any containers or implements that have touched chametz are stored and not used during Passover. Passover (Pesach) commemorates the emancipation of the Israelites from slavery in ancient Egypt. Batter is fried like thin crepes, which are stacked, rolled up and sliced into ribbons. [62], Passover cake recipes call for potato starch or Passover cake flour made from finely granulated matzo instead of regular flour, and a large amount of eggs to achieve fluffiness. This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 21:23. Preparing for the Passover Celebration Mark the date for Passover. Why do Jews celebrate Passover? This is a as much a celebration of our spiritual freedom as the physical liberation from slavery. The Talmud in Pesahim (p. 2a) derives from the Torah that the search for chametz be conducted by the light of a candle and therefore is done at night, and although the final destruction of the chametz (usually by burning it in a small bonfire) is done on the next morning, the blessing is made at night because the search is both in preparation for and part of the commandments to remove and destroy all chametz from one's possession. the recital of Kiddush which is not immediately followed by the blessing over bread, which is the traditional procedure for all other holiday meals) to arouse the interest and curiosity of the children at the table. This is followed by several lyric prayers that expound upon God's mercy and kindness, and give thanks for the survival of the Jewish people through a history of exile and hardship. This applies to both men and women. [7], The Passover ritual is widely thought to have its origins in an apotropaic rite, unrelated to the Exodus, to ensure the protection of a family home, a rite conducted wholly within a clan. Nowadays, in addition to the biblical prohibition of owning leavened foods for the duration of the holiday, the Passover seder is one of the most widely observed rituals in Judaism. Primarily among Chabad Chassidim, there is a custom of not eating matzoh (flat unleavened bread) in the 30 days before Passover begins. Because the house is free of leaven (chametz) for eight days, the Jewish household typically eats different foods during the week of Passover. Called Pesach (pay-sak) in Hebrew, Passover is a celebration of freedom observed by Jews everywhere. Four cups of wine are consumed at various stages in the narrative. The head of the household repeats the declaration of biyur chametz, declaring any chametz that may not have been found to be null and void "as the dust of the earth": Should more chametz actually be found in the house during the Passover holiday, it must be burnt as soon as possible. This custom is said to derive from the part of the Passover story in which the Hebrew slaves fled Egypt so quickly that their bread didn't have time to rise. The seder concludes with additional songs of praise and faith printed in the Haggadah, including Chad Gadya ("One Little Kid" or "One Little Goat"). Due to the Torah injunction not to eat chametz (leaven) during Passover (Exodus 12:15), observant families typically own complete sets of serving dishes, glassware and silverware (and in some cases, even separate dishwashers and sinks) which have never come into contact with chametz, for use only during Passover. Bad news: I'm 75. Jewish law requires the elimination of olive-sized or larger quantities of leavening from one's possession, but most housekeeping goes beyond this. Passover begins on the 15th day of the Jewish month of Nisan (late March or early April in the Gregorian calendar). While the original instance of the Passover occurred on one night, Passover was combined with the Feast of Unleavened Bread and celebrated for seven days. What Is Passover (Pesach)? Passover lambs were to be sacrificed at the door of the tabernacle and no longer in the homes of the Jews. Since the destruction of the Temple, this offering is brought in word rather than deed. [8] Hyssop was employed to daub the blood of a slaughtered sheep on the lintels and door posts to ensure that demonic forces could not enter the home. The blood of the lamb represented a false deity of Egypt. Matzo may be made by machine or by hand. "What Is Passover (Pesach)?" 10:1) that even the poorest man in Israel has an obligation to drink. Passover (Pesach) is celebrated each spring, and is one of the most important Jewish holidays. They use this opportunity to speak about the Splitting of the Sea to their disciples, and sing songs of praise to God. Learn Religions. In Hebrew … There is an attendant explanation that matzo serves as a symbol to remind Jews what it is like to be a poor slave and to promote humility, appreciate freedom, and avoid the inflated ego symbolized by more luxurious leavened bread.[54]. Many readings, prayers, and stories are used to recount the story of the Exodus. Josephus, Antiquities 3.250–251, in Josephus IV Jewish Antiquities Books I–IV, Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1930, pp. Hasidic Rebbes traditionally hold a tish on the night of Shvi'i shel Pesach and place a cup or bowl of water on the table before them. Each night after the evening prayer service, men and women recite a special blessing and then enumerate the day of the Omer. The offering had to be made before a quorum of 30 (Pesahim 64b). After parching and crushing the little sheaf of ears and purifying the barley for grinding, they bring to the altar an assaron for God, and, having flung a handful thereof on the altar, they leave the rest for the use of the priests. Outside the Land of Israel, in the Jewish diaspora, Shvi'i shel Pesach is celebrated on both the seventh and eighth days of Passover. No longer, therefore, could blood be smeared on doorways. The seder is replete with questions, answers, and unusual practices (e.g. It commemorates the Biblical story of Exodus, when Hebrew slaves were released by God from bondage in Egypt. A symbol of the Passover holiday is matzo, an unleavened flatbread made solely from flour and water which is continually worked from mixing through baking, so that it is not allowed to rise. [22] The slaughter of the lambs on the 14th is mentioned in The Book of Jubilees, a Jewish work of the Ptolemaic period, and by the Herodian-era writers Josephus and Philo. For observant Jews, these grains are not only forbidden for Passover but are carefully searched out and expelled from the home before Passover begins, sometimes in highly ritualized ways. Pelaia, Ariela. It is a time for family outings and picnic lunches of matzo, hardboiled eggs, fruits and vegetables, and Passover treats such as macaroons and homemade candies. [71] Passover is also celebrated in Karaite Judaism, which rejects the Oral Torah that characterizes mainstream Rabbinic Judaism, as well as other groups claiming affiliation with Israelites. Following the destruction of the Second Temple and its altar in Jerusalem, we have been unable to celebrate Passover completely, without the sacrifice the Passover … Because Passover is a retelling of a story to new generations, and due to the seder’s prescribed order, the Haggadah does a pretty good job explaining many key elements and symbols as … In the Book of Exodus, the Israelites are enslaved in ancient Egypt. The most important kosher for Passover restriction is that leavened bread cannot be consumed. Like the holiday of Sukkot, the intermediary days of Passover are known as Chol HaMoed (festival weekdays) and are imbued with a semi-festive status. Another important ritual involved in Passover is the eating of … [34]The Samaritans use a calendrical system that uses a different method to that current in Jewish practice, in order to determine their timing of feastdays. What is Passover? What Are the Four Questions at the Passover Seder? [15] The literal meaning of the Hebrew is "between the two evenings". Each cup is connected to a different part of the seder: the first cup is for Kiddush, the second cup is connected with the recounting of the Exodus, the drinking of the third cup concludes Birkat Hamazon and the fourth cup is associated with Hallel. "What Is Passover (Pesach)?" Note that if the 14th of Nisan is Shabbat, many of the below will be celebrated on the 13th instead due to restrictions in place during Shabbat. Passover, which is also called Pesach in Hebrew, calls on Jews to remember the story of the Israelites' escape from ancient Egypt. The Passover begins on the 15th day of the month of Nisan, which typically falls in March or April of the Gregorian calendar. The Jewish holiday of Passover (in Hebrew, Pesach) commemorates the exodus of the Jews from slavery in Egypt. Often, masks or scarecrow-like images (called “Guys”) that represent the conspirators are thrown on the top of the bonfire before it is lit to commemorate the capture, torture, and execution of Guy Fawkes and the other conspirators. Passover (or Pesach in Hebrew) is one of the most important festivals in the Jewish year. During the day on the 14th of Nisan, they were to slaughter the animal and use its blood to mark their lintels and door posts. The eighth day is marked, "Today is the eighth day, which is one week and one day in the Omer," etc.[58]. Every year, Jews are commanded to retell the Passover story. The Last Supper, before Jesus was arrested and put to death, was a Passover meal. The Seder, which follows a carefully prescribed series of 15 steps, includes a dinner of highly symbolic foods that are prepared on a Seder Plate. Many Sephardi Jews have the custom of eating lamb or goat meat during the Seder in memory of the Korban Pesach. –, "In the fourth century, ... the patriarch, Bokser, Baruch M. (1992) "Unleavened Bread and Passover, Feasts of" in, Greenberg, Moshe (1974) "Lessons on Exodus". According to Exodus 12:29, God struck down all Egyptian firstborns while the Israelites were not affected. The following verse from the Torah underscores that symbolism: "And they embittered (Hebrew: וימררו ve-yimareru) their lives with hard labor, with mortar and with bricks and with all manner of labor in the field; any labor that they made them do was with hard labor" (Exodus 1:14). Targum Onkelos translates pesach as ve-yeiḥos (Hebrew: וְיֵחוֹס we-yēḥôs) "he had pity" coming from the Hebrew root חסה meaning to have pity.[4]. [42], Some hotels, resorts, and even cruise ships across America, Europe, and Israel also undergo a thorough housecleaning to make their premises "kosher for Pesach" to cater to observant Jews. [39] Alternatively, the children are allowed to "steal" the afikoman and demand a reward for its return. Passover is one of the most important religious festivals in the Jewish calendar. It commemorates the Israelites’ Exodus from Egypt, and their transition from slavery to freedom. The commonly held assumption that it means "He passed over" (פסח), in reference to God "passing over" (or "skipping") the houses of the Hebrews during the final of the Ten Plagues of Egypt, stems from the translation provided in the Septuagint (παρελευσεται [Greek: pareleusetai] in Exodus 12:23, and εσκεπασεν [Greek: eskepasen] in Exodus 12:27). The eating of the afikoman substitutes for the eating of the Korban Pesach at the end of the Seder meal (Mishnah Pesachim 119a). In Israel, families that do not kasher their ovens can bake cakes, casseroles, and even meat[64] on the stovetop in a Wonder Pot, an Israeli invention consisting of three parts: an aluminium pot shaped like a Bundt pan, a hooded cover perforated with venting holes, and a thick, round, metal disc with a center hole which is placed between the Wonder Pot and the flame to disperse heat.[65]. [37][44] According to other scholars the absence of leaven or yeast means that leaven or yeast symbolizes corruption and spoiling. Many households add their own commentary and interpretation and often the story of the Jews is related to the theme of liberation and its implications worldwide. For Judaism, this is Jerusalem.[20]. Passover, also called Pesach (/ˈpɛsɑːx, ˈpeɪ-/;[2] Hebrew: פֶּסַח‎ Pesaḥ), is a major Jewish holiday that occurs in the spring on the 15th day of the Hebrew month of Nisan. [53] Other scholars teach that in the time of the Exodus, matzo was commonly baked for the purpose of traveling because it preserved well and was light to carry (making it similar to hardtack), suggesting that matzo was baked intentionally for the long journey ahead. … (2020, August 26). The term Pesach (Hebrew: פֶּסַח Pesaḥ) may also refer to the lamb or goat which was designated as the Passover sacrifice (called the Korban Pesach in Hebrew). Maror (bitter herbs) symbolizes the bitterness of slavery in Egypt. Retrieved from https://www.learnreligions.com/all-about-passover-pesach-2076435. Thus, bagels, waffles and pancakes made with baking soda and matzo meal are considered permissible, while bagels made with sourdough and pancakes and waffles made with yeast are prohibited.[41]. The baking of matzo is labor-intensive,[39] as less than 18 minutes is permitted between the mixing of flour and water to the conclusion of baking and removal from the oven. Some of these songs, such as "Chad Gadya" are allegorical. I, # 21 – Pesach Sheni, The "Second" Pesach", "Grandma Hanna's Lokshen Are a Perfect Passover Dish", "The very ancient Passover of one of the smallest religions in the world", 'Peninei Halachah' Jewish Law – Yhb.org.il, Akhlah: The Jewish Children's Learning Network, Day to Mark the Departure and Expulsion of Jews from the Arab Countries and Iran, Annunciation of the Virgin Mary / Annunciation of the Theotokos, Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust, Emancipation Day in the U.S. Virgin Islands, Fast in Honor of the Holy Mother of Lord Jesus, Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Nativity of Mary / Nativity of the Theotokos, Italian-American Heritage and Culture Month, Virgin Islands–Puerto Rico Friendship Day, Presentation of the Theotokos to the Temple, Urus Mubarak of Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Passover&oldid=998747462, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 21 Nisan (22 Nisan in traditional Diaspora communities), 15 Nisan, 16 Nisan, 17 Nisan, 18 Nisan, 19 Nisan, 20 Nisan, 21 Nisan, 22 Nisan, And thou shalt remember that thou wast a bondman in Egypt; and thou shalt observe and do these statutes (. The Haggadah divides the night's procedure into 15 parts: These 15 parts parallel the 15 steps in the Temple in Jerusalem on which the Levites stood during Temple services, and which were memorialized in the 15 Psalms (#120–134) known as Shir HaMa'a lot (Hebrew: שיר המעלות shiyr ha-ma‘alôth, "Songs of Ascent").[56]. Perhaps in our generation the counsel of our Talmudic sages may seem superfluous, for today the story of our enslavement in Egypt is kept alive not only by ritualistic symbolism, but even more so by tragic realism. Disenfranchisement and forced labor to celebrate Passover itself as a Christian holiday. [ ]. Before the altar on the Jewish calendar blessing and then enumerate the day of Nisan were. The highlight of the Hebrew is `` between the two evenings '' was to... Remove traces of flour and yeast, however small have the custom of eating lamb or goat meat the. And its aftermath the banquet included hymns and prayers. [ 39 ] Alternatively, the sacrifices may made... 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